Health, Disease, Safety, Environmetal Health Information and Advice for the General Public and Important Notices

Public Health Ontario - (Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion)

Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) advice for the public- (WHO)

Coronavirus - "Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans." - (WHO)

Global Measles Outbreak Notice - January 03, 2020 - (CDC)

Measles (Rubeola) - (CDC)


PANDEMIC INFLUENZA - "An influenza pandemic is a global outbreak of a new influenza A virus. Pandemics happen when new (novel) influenza A viruses emerge which are able to infect people easily and spread from person to person in an efficient and sustained way." - (CDC)

What is the difference between a cold and flu? - (CDC)

How Flu Spreads - (CDC)

BEST PRACTICES FOR HAND HYGIENE - WHY WASH YOUR HANDS? - Keeping hands clean is one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Many diseases and conditions are spread by not washing hands with soap and clean, running water. (CDC)

Information about Hand Hygiene (video) - (Winnipeg Health Region)

Handwashing and Hand Sanitizer Use at Home, at Play, and Out and About (CDC)

Best Practices for Hand Hygiene - (Public Health Ontario)

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions - "Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) are actions, apart from getting vaccinated and taking medicine, that people and communities can take to help slow the spread of illnesses like pandemic influenza (flu). NPIs are also known as community mitigation strategies. When a new flu virus spreads among people, causing illness worldwide, it is called pandemic flu. Because a pandemic flu virus is new, the human population has little or no immunity against it. This allows the virus to spread quickly from person to person worldwide. NPIs are among the best ways of controlling pandemic flu when vaccines are not yet available. This website provides decision makers, planners, and public health professionals with educational tools, resources, pandemic planning guides, checklists, and select research about the types of NPIs and how they work in different settings." - (CDC)

Show Me the Science - Situations where hand sanitizer can be effective & How to Use it in community settings - (CDC)



Cough Culprits - What's the Difference Between Bronchitis and Pneumonia? (NIH News in Health, May 2017)

Flu (influenza) - Know the Flu Facts (Gov. of Canada)

Weekly influenza reports (Health Canada, FluWatch)

Influenza Overview (U.S. National Vaccine Information Center)

Influenza (Flu) Viruses - Influenza (also known as the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The flu is different from a cold. The flu usually comes on suddenly. * It's important to note that not everyone with flu will have a fever. (CDC - October 5, 2017)

Is influenza hitting kids harder this year? What you need to know "Flu has killed 18 in Ottawa" (CTV News, Feb 14, 2018)


PROTECT CHILDREN WITH THE FLU VACCINE:" Some children are at especially high risk of developing serious flu complications, which can result in hospitalization and death: Children younger than 6 months old are too young to be vaccinated. The best way to protect an infant from flu is for the expecting mom to get vaccinated during her pregnancy (antibodies are passed from mom to the developing baby) and to make sure others around them are vaccinated. This includes parents, grandparents, siblings, and caregivers. Children aged 6 months up to their 5th birthday – even those who are healthy – are at high risk of developing serious flu complications simply because of their age. Children aged 6 months through 18 years with certain long-term health problems, such as asthma, diabetes, or neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions, also are at high-risk for complications from flu."-
(CDC 2018)

The Junior Disease Detectives: Operation Outbreak Graphic Novel - "CDC has partnered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and 4-H to develop "The Junior Disease Detectives: Operation Outbreak," a graphic novel intended to educate youth audiences about variant flu and the real disease detective work conducted by public and animal health experts when outbreaks of infectious diseases occur. This graphic novel follows a group of teenage 4-H members who participate in a state agricultural fair and later attend CDC's Disease Detective Camp in Atlanta. When one of the boys becomes sick following the fair, the rest of the group use their newly-acquired disease detective knowledge to help a team of public and animal health experts solve the mystery of how their friend became ill."(CDC, Influenza (Flu)

Is influenza hitting kids harder this year? What you need to know "Flu has killed 18 in Ottawa" (CTV News, Feb 14, 2018)

Flu Shots for Older Adults: What to Know & Do for 2018-2019 - by Leslie Kernisan, MD MPH

Flu may be spread just by breathing, new study shows; coughing and sneezing not required (Maryland School of Public Health - January 18, 2018)

Flu could raise heart attack risk, Canadian study says - Dr. Jeff Kwong, a scientist at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) in Toronto, says his study underlines the need for people at risk of heart attack to be especially careful in protecting themselves against the flu. (CBC) January 18, 2018)

Flu activity in Canada 'high' and continuing to rise, latest public health numbers say - More than 15,500 cases confirmed compared to about 9,000 this time last year (CBC News, Jan 12, 2018)


Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report - 2018-2019 Influenza Season Week 1 ending January 5, 2019. (CDC)

Vaccine Safety - Guillain-Barré Syndrome "Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare disorder where the body's immune system damages nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. While its cause is not fully understood, the syndrome often follows infection with a virus or bacteria. In the United States, an estimated 3,000 to 6,000 people develop GBS each year. Most people recover fully from GBS, but some have permanent nerve damage. There have been several studies of the risk of GBS after flu vaccine and CDC monitors for GBS during each flu season. The data on an association between seasonal influenza vaccine and GBS have been variable from season-to-season. When there has been an increased risk, it has consistently been in the range of 1-2 additional GBS cases per million flu vaccine doses administered."
"Studies suggest that it is more likely that a person will get GBS after getting the flu than after vaccination. It is important to keep in mind that severe illness and death are associated with flu, and getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent flu infection and its complications.
" - (CDC)

If you use a wood stove or fireplace in your home, there are steps you can take to reduce the health risks for you, your family, and neighbours. Wood smoke and indoor air Wood smoke can get into your home: when you open the stove to add or stoke the firewood through leaks and cracks in faulty or poorly-maintained stoves from other nearby homes with wood-burning stoves The main pollutants in wood smoke that cause health concerns are:
- Particulate matter: This is the term for solid or liquid particles found in the air, which help create smog. They can be very small and can travel deep into your lungs, causing breathing and heart problems.
- Carbon monoxide (CO): This is a colourless, odourless gas that is poisonous at high levels. It can make you feel sick and even kill you.
- Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): These are a wide range of compounds that usually have no colour, taste or smell. Some cause direct health effects, while others contribute to smog.
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): These compounds are a health concern because they can cause cancer.
(Health Canada)

Fast Facts about Carbon Monoxide Alarms (NFPA)

Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials (U.S. Fire Administration)

Carbon monoxide poisoning - (Mayo Clinic) - Complications - "Depending on the degree and length of exposure, carbon monoxide poisoning can cause:
- Permanent brain damage
- Damage to your heart, possibly leading to life-threatening cardiac complications
- Fetal death or miscarriage
- Death"

ASBESTOS - "Asbestos" is a commercial name, not a mineralogical definition, given to a variety of six naturally occurring fibrous minerals. These minerals possess high tensile strength, flexibility, resistance to chemical and thermal degradation, and electrical resistance. These minerals have been used for decades in thousands of commercial products, such as insulation and fireproofing materials, automotive brakes and textile products, and cement and wallboard materials. When handled, asbestos can separate into microscopic-size particles that remain in the air and are easily inhaled. Persons occupationally exposed to asbestos have developed several types of life-threatening diseases, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Although the use of asbestos and asbestos products has dramatically decreased in recent years, they are still found in many residential and commercial settings and continue to pose a health risk to workers and others - (NIOSH)

THERE IS NO "SAFE" LEVEL OF ASBESTOS EXPOSURE FOR ANY TYPE OF ASBESTOS FIBER. Asbestos exposures as short in duration as a few days have caused mesothelioma in humans. Every occupational exposure to asbestos can cause injury of disease; every occupational exposure to asbestos contributes to the risk of getting an asbestos related disease. (U.S. OSHA - Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos)

Lung cancer - Priority carcinogens ("Canadians may be exposed to higher-than-average levels of asbestos in air if they live near asbestos-containing waste or industrial sites, if they use asbestos-containing consumer products, or if they live or work in buildings with deteriorating asbestos insulation or that have undergone poorly performed asbestos removal.") - CAREX Canada)

Asbestos-Linked Cancer on the Rise (Carcinogens in the News - CAREX Canada)

Mesothelioma risk after 40 years since first exposure to asbestos: a pooled analysis (Reid A, et al. Thorax 2014;69:843–850)

Surviving Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Stephen Jay Gould's Cancer Journey (Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance at - Aug. 2018)

The Median Isn't the Message- ("In July 1982, I learned that I was suffering from abdominal mesothelioma, a rare and serious cancer usually associated with exposure to asbestos") by Stephen Jay Gould, PhD

Full Asbestos Ban, changed codes and regulations expected by 2018 - Candian Government to prohibit asbestos in new construction and renovations, ban it in imports such as brake pads (CBC News)

Fact sheet: Asbestos - (Canadian Union of Public Employees, Feb 20, 2018)

Too many contractors aren't removing asbestos properly, says B.C. Building Trades Council - (CBC News BC)

Asbestos: elimination of asbestos-related diseases - Fact sheet Updated June 2016 (WHO)

Canada to ban asbestos: What you need to know about the common carcinogen (Global News)

Asbestos - In the Home (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety)

Health risks of asbestos - Asbestos, if inhaled, can cause cancer and other diseases (Government of Canada - Health)

Asbestos awareness for homeowners (Work Safe BC)

Region fined after construction workers exposed to asbestos (CTV News, January 13, 2017)

Asbestos testing should be required before renovations start, say experts (CBC News)

Food Safety - Useful Information for the public on how to prevent food poisoning - (CDC)

Top 5 Foodborne Illness Risk Factors - (Orange County, California) -
The top five risk factors that most often are responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks are:
- Improper hot/cold holding temperatures of potentially hazardous food.
- Improper cooking temperatures of food.
- Dirty and/or contaminated utensils and equipment.
- Poor employee health and hygiene.
- Food from unsafe sources.

Asbestos and Cancer Risk - 2019 American Cancer Society, Inc.

Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk - "Although it is clear that the health risks from asbestos exposure increase with heavier exposure and longer exposure time, investigators have found asbestos-related diseases in individuals with only brief exposures. Generally, those who develop asbestos-related diseases show no signs of illness for a long time after exposure. It can take from 10 to 40 years or more for symptoms of an asbestos-related condition to appear" - National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute)

Textile industry and occupational cancer - "Thousands of workers are engaged in textile industry worldwide. Textile industry involves the use of different kinds of dyes which are known to possess carcinogenic properties. Solvents used in these industries are also associated with different health related hazards including cancer."(Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology; 2016)

FAST FACTS ABOUT MENTAL ILLNESS (Canadian Mental Health Association)

500,000 Canadians miss work each week due to mental health concerns (By Carmen Chai Senior National Online Journalist, Health Global News)

World Health Day 2017: Why the WHO chose depression as its focus this year (By Carmen Chai Senior National Online Journalist, Health Global News)

World Health Day 2017 – Depression: let's talk (World Health Organization WHO)


Half of teen girls in Ontario under psychological distress,' CAMH survey shows - "Just over half of female students in Ontario are showing the signs of moderate to serious psychological distress, with many mentioning having serious depression and anxiety, and others revealing they rarely talk to their parents about their problems." (CTV News, July 25, 2018)

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists - Mental Health Disorders in Adolescents (ACOG, July 2017)

Tackling the mental health crisis in our youth - Santa Ono, (TED Presentation, Oct 30, 2017)

Does Online Social Media Lead to Social Connection or Social Disconnection? - (Jean M. Twenge, 08 Feb 2013)

10 Mental Health Tips To Share With Your High School Senior (Marcia Morris M.D., Psychology Today, Apr 22, 2018)

Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development
(Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2014 Mar; 17(1): 1–18)

How Smartphones Change The Way You Think - (by Jeff Butler at TED, Sept. 21, 2016)

"We're designing minds": Industry insider reveals secrets of addictive app trade - A look at the science behind the 'technological arms race' to keep people fixated on their phones - "The average Canadian teenager is on track to spend nearly a decade of their life staring at a smartphone, and that's no accident, according to an industry insider who shared some time-sucking secrets of the app design trade" (CBC Marketplace)

Reducing Perfectionism in Teens - (ADAA is an international nonprofit organization dedicated to the prevention, treatment, and cure of anxiety, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and trauma-related disorders through education, practice, and research)

SMARTPHONE ADDICTION CREATES CHEMICAL IMBALANCES IN BRAIN - "New research finds that young people who become addicted to smartphones and the internet actually develop chemistry imbalances in their brains." (CTV News, November 30, 2017)

Girls more negatively affected by social media than boys: survey" (The Globe and Mail, July 25, 2018)

How kids and teens can navigate social media in the era of fake news - "McGill lecture series tackles childhood anxiety, learning diffculties and online pressures"
(CBC News, March 24, 2018)

Health Canada's 'fake news?' — It's not fake but it's not news either (CBC News, April 21,2018)

"GENERATION AT RISK: AMERICA'S YOUNGEST FACING MENTAL HEALTH CRISIS" - "American children's mental health is worrying experts, with one in five kids suffering from a diagnosable mental, emotional or behavioral disorder." (NBC New, 2017)

HOSPITALS STRUGGLE TO KEEP UP AS MORE YOUTH SEEK HELP FOR MENTAL ILLNESS - "The number of children and teens turning up in emergency units with serious mental health disorders is happening in alarming numbers, placing a strain on resources that hospitals say are no longer cutting it." (CTV News)

"Tortured Mind" Ontario schools are missing 'perfect opportunity' to address mental health amid rash of youth suicides (By Andrew Russell, Global News)

Young Canadians face heightened crash risk after consuming cannabis, new study finds - "Research published today shows significant decline in driving-related ability even after five hours" - "Young Canadians are more at risk of a vehicle crash even five hours after inhaling cannabis, according to results of a clinical trial conducted at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) and McGill University, and funded by the Canadian Automobile Association (CAA). The research found that performance declined significantly, in key areas such as reaction time, even five hours after inhaling the equivalent of less than one typical joint. The participants' driving performance, which was tested in a driving simulator, deteriorated as soon as they were exposed to the kinds of distractions common on the road." The peer-reviewed study is published online today at 6:00 a.m. EST at CMAJ Open, an online sister journal to CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal)

Let's clear up some misconceptions about cannabis addiction. First off: yes, it's real - (Jonathan Stea - CBC News, Aug 18, 2018) - Dr. Jonathan N. Stea is a registered and practising clinical psychologist in Calgary, with research and clinical expertise in addiction. He has published many peer-reviewed scientific research papers on topics related to cannabis, addiction and mental health. He provides assessment, treatment, and consultation services in a specialty outpatient program for concurrent addictive and psychiatric disorders.

EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA ON THE FETUS AND BREASTFEEDING INFANTS - Current studies indicate that approximately 4% of women in the USA use illicit drugs while pregnant. Seventy five percent of these cases report the use of marijuana. Despite the widespread use of this product, the public is not aware of the potential neurobehavioral effects of this drug on the fetus or the newborn infant (Infant Risk Centre, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 2018)


Marijuana and Public Health (CDC)

Cannabis legislation fails to protect Canada's youth - Diane Kelsall, MD MEd (CMAJ May 29, 2017 vol. 189 no. 21)


Tobacco Hazards - Fact sheet (WHO)

FENTANYL: The king of all opiates, and a killer drug crisis - It's stronger than heroin and more potent than OxyContin. It's also cheap, ubiquitous, and incredibly deadly. Inside the rise of fentanyl (Maclean's - Rogers Media)

Medical experts urge Canada to declare public emergency over opioid crisis - Federal Health Minister Jane Philpott says root causes of overdose deaths must be examined (CBC News)

The problem with tanning (and the myth of the base tan) - (Robert H. Shmerling, MD, Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publications)

SUICIDE PREVENTION IN SCHOOLS (Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention)

Suicide Prevention on College Campuses: A Step by Step Guide to Developing a Comprehensive Approach (California Mental Health Services Authority)

Ask About Suicide (Canadian Mental Health Association - British Columbia Division)


STDs Hit All-Time High in U.S. (STDs) - Annual report shows more than 2 million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis reported in 2016 (MedlinePlus)

Sexual and reproductive health (WHO)

8 Ways College Women Can Protect Their Health - Awareness and follow-up are keys to avoiding gynecologic problems, expert advises (MedlinePlus - September 26, 2017)

COLD SORES / HERPES (BC Centre for Disease Control)

Herpes simplex virus (WHO)

Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet (CDC)

Herpes Simplex Virus - Pathogen Safety Data Sheet - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES (Public Health Agency of Canada)

Herpes Simplex Virus Infections - By Craig R. Pringle, BSc, PhD, University of Warwick (Merck Manual, Consumer Version)


Scientists warn that ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT GONORRHOEA IS ON THE RISE - "Every day, more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections are acquired worldwide, and each year an estimated 78 million people are infected with gonorrhoea. New data from 77 countries show that antibiotic resistance is making gonorrhoea much harder – and sometimes impossible – to treat." " Gonorrhoea can be prevented through safer sexual behaviour, in particular consistent and correct condom use. Information, education, and communication can promote and enable safer sex practices, improve people's ability to recognize the symptoms of gonorrhoea and other sexually transmitted infections, and increase the likelihood they will seek care. Today, lack of public awareness, lack of training of health workers, and stigma around sexually transmitted infections remain barriers to greater and more effective use of these interventions." (WHO)

B.C. teen died from TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME while on class trip (Global News)

Vaginal hygiene products linked to infections: study - (CTV NEWS, April 16, 2018)

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) (Government of Canada)

STUDY OFFERS CLUES FOR WHY BIRTH CONTROL MAY FAIL - A genetic component in some women breaks down contraceptive hormones - "Women who get pregnant while using birth control may carry a gene that breaks down the hormones common in contraceptives, according to researchers in a new study" - University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus; (ScienceDaily, March 12, 2019)

SCHOOL HEALTH - (Health Protection Surveillance Centre, Dublin, Ireland)


ToxTown - Agriculture "Farming is an important job, but it can be dangerous. Hazards on farms include toxic gases from fermenting crops and animal manure, chemicals in pesticides and fertilizers, high levels of dust, and infected animals that can spread diseases." (NIH)

Warning Issued On Field Spreading Manure - Pathogen Issues

Canada animal manure management guide - "A characteristic of animal manures is their high water pollution potential. Hence a major objective of efficient manure management must be to ensure that manure or its constituents cannot gain access to rivers, streams, lakes or water supplies." "Contamination of water by manure poses a serious health hazard to humans and animals, water acting as the carrier of numerous disease pathogens from infected animals. In addition, contaminated water can be responsible for nitrate poisoning in both animals and humans, particularly infants."

Agricultural Operations Regulation Environment Quality Act (Quebec, Canada)

Mold After a Disaster - "After natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods, excess moisture and standing water contribute to the growth of mold in homes and other buildings. When returning to a home that has been flooded, be aware that mold may be present and may be a health risk for your family." (CDC - February 1, 2019_


Floodwater and Your Health: Frequently Asked Questions (Manitoba Gov.)

Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas (CDC)

Why Are Biocides Not Recommended for Mould Remediation? (Mould and Bacteria Consulting Laboratories)

RECALL NOTICE: Honda Portable Generator recalled due to fire hazard - Product: Honda EU2200i Portable Generator. Issue: The product can leak gasoline from the fuel valve, posing a fire and burn hazard. What to do: Immediately stop using the recalled generator and contact an authorized Honda dealer for a free repair. (Health Canada; April 11, 2019)

NOTICE: Potentially fatal tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm) spread by foxes, coyotes discovered in Ontario "Parasite can infect dogs and their owners, and is more widespread than first thought" (CBC News · Posted: Apr 13, 2019)

Management of Echinococcus Multilocularis Infections in Animals Guideline, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; 2018

Health Canada

PENALTIES WHEN WORKERS DIE ON THE JOB DON'T GO FAR ENOUGH, SAY LABOUR GROUPS, families - Only 5 jail sentences have been served in connection with a workplace fatality "Nearly every day in Canada, a family gets a call that shakes its foundations to the core: a father, a mother, a son or daughter has been killed on the job" (CBC News - Nov 30, 2017)

A WORKER DIES ON THE JOB EVERY 5 DAYS IN QUEBEC. Here's one family's story - Province has lowest fines in Canada for unsafe work places, CBC investigation finds - (CBC News - Dec 05, 2017)


The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine


FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE IN GROSS ANATOMY "Your classroom work in gross anatomy will expose you to formaldehyde. This document will inform you of the potential hazards formaldehyde exposure and describe the protective equipment you should wear and the procedures to follow to limit your exposure." - University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health & Radiation Safety

AN UPDATE ON FORMALDEHYDE - U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has produced this booklet to tell you about formaldehyde and its potential impact on indoor air quality.

RADON AND CANCER - Fact Sheet - (Oncology Nurse Advisor)


Radiation from Building Materials - (CDC)

Radiation and Your Health - (CDC)


Residential Radon - (Gouvernement du Québec, 2018)

Radon in schools: A summary of testing efforts across Canada - Radon gas is the leading cause of lung cancer among non-smokers and is responsible for approximately 16% of lung cancer deaths in Canada.1,2 Radon is colourless and odourless, so testing is the only way to know if radon levels are elevated and if remediation is required. Many organizations are working to assess radon exposure in homes and raise awareness about the importance of testing. Given that children and staff spend a considerable amount of time indoors in schools - where radon levels can accumulate to high levels – the CAREX Canada team has prioritized radon exposure in Canadian schools. (CAREX Canada)


EPA News Release on National Radon Action Month - EPA Urges Home Radon Tests This January for National Radon Action Month - Radon, a naturally-occurring radioactive gas that causes cancer, can build up to unsafe levels in any home at any time of year. "If a high radon level is found, the good news is that this serious environmental risk can be reduced by using simple, proven techniques comparable to the cost of other minor home repair or improvement projects," said Bill Wehrum, Assistant Administrator of EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. Millions of homes in the United States have elevated levels of radon. Inhalation of radon damages lung cells and kills approximately 21,000 people annually, making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking - (EPA)

Study finds deadly radon gas exceeds safe levels in one of eight Calgary homes (Calgary Herald)

Mike Holmes: Catch that silent killer before it gets into your house - Radon is a silent killer (National Post)

Radon - Frequently Asked Questions (Health Canada)

How to Test for Radon? (Health Canada)

Homeowner's Guide to Radon (The Canadian Real Estate Association (CREA) - (pdf)

THE TOPIC IS CANCER - Get the Facts: 3 Myths about Cervical Cancer Screening - (CDC)


Many cancer patients may have received incomplete chemo doses, review finds (CTV News, August 17, 2018) ----
- Should this be considered a "medical error"?
- Did Accreditation Canada assess this instituition?

Lung Cancer -
In 2015, an estimated 26,600 Canadians will be diagnosed with lung cancer and 20,900 will die of it.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women.
An estimated 13,400 women will be diagnosed with lung cancer and 10,000 will die of it.
An estimated 13,600 men will be diagnosed with lung cancer and 10,900 will die of it.
On average 510 Canadians will be diagnosed with lung cancer every week.
On average, 400 Canadians will die of lung cancer every week.

In 2015, it was estimated that 26,600 Canadians would be diagnosed with lung cancer - more than any other type of cancer. More people die from lung cancer than breast cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer combined. 1 in 12 Canadians will develop lung cancer during his/her lifetime. Smoking causes most lung cancers. However, about half of patients who are diagnosed have either never smoked (15%) or are former smokers (35%). Most lung cancers are diagnosed in late stages, due in part to lack of effective screening procedures. Lung cancer patients and their family members are often stigmatized by a widespread prejudice about smoking, and many feel isolated and hesitant to tell others about their diagnosis. Lung cancer receives little public or media attention. This is due, in part, to a small community of survivors to bring a voice and attention to lung cancer issues.
(Lung Cancer Canada)

Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections (CDC)

Doctors warn of heart risk from some breast cancer therapies (CBC News, Feb 01, 2018)

Adding heart failure drug to breast cancer treatment lessens heart damage (By American Heart Association News)

Auditor General of Ontario found cancer patients who need take-home cancer treatments are facing administrative delays in starting treatments and safety issues (Canadian Cancer Society - 06 December 2017)

CANCER PATIENTS AND FUNGAL INFECTIONS - As a cancer patient, you may have received a lot of information about your treatment and your journey to recovery. Chemotherapy and radiation cause many changes in the body as they destroy cancer cells. One major change is that these treatments weaken your immune system, which can increase your chances of getting an infection, including a fungal infection (CDC)

Care at Home for the Immunocompromised Patient - e.g. cancer patient (The Johns Hopkins Hospital Patient Information)

Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections
Even though you're staying in the hospital to get better, it's possible to get an infection while you're there. If you're staying in the hospital for an injury or an illness, you may be at risk for getting a fungal infection, especially if you're very sick or have a weak immune system. These types of infections are called healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) - (CDC, January 25, 2017)

Receipts expose retail workers, consumers to 'worrying' levels of cancer-linked chemicals: study - (CTV News, February 7, 2019)

Several drugs containing valsartan being recalled due to contamination with a potential carcinogen - N-nitrosodimethylamine - (Health Canada, July 9, 2018 )

Sun Safety at Work Canada - is enhancing sun safety for Canadian workplaces. "The sun is a workplace hazard that can cause skin cancer, heat stress and eye damage. These conditions are preventable"

ARE THERE CARCINOGENS IN YOUR WORKPLACE? - "The risk of developing work-related cancer is far less obvious than the risk of falling or being injured on the job. Still, it's a very real risk. Just as employers and workers must do their part to make workplaces safer and try to eliminate accident risks, it is equally important for them to identify carcinogens and play an active role in reducing exposure" - (IRRST - Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail)


Silica - "One of the highest risks for workers repeatedly exposed to Silica is Silicosis, a nonreversible lung disease with symptoms that can range from shortness of breath and chest pains, to an eventual inability to breathe that could turn fatal.Beyond the cutting and crushing Keeping you safe from Crystalline Silica "Crystalline Silica is more likely to be present in the air when you're cutting, sawing, drilling or crushing concrete, brick, ceramic tiles, rocks or stones. It also shows up whenever you're working with sand products like glass and pottery. Some of the more dangerous workplaces include mines and foundries and tasks like include abrasive blasting" (3M Sciences Applied to Life)

Respirable Crystalline Silica: Breathe Easier - CAREX Canada reports that approximately 380,000 Canadians are exposed to silica at work, primarily in the construction sector. ACCORDING TO 2011 CANCER STATISTICS FROM CAREX, 570 LUNG CANCER CASES (2.4% OVERALL) WERE ATTRIBUTED TO OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO CRYSTALLINE SILICA IN CANADA. (CCOHS)

Controlling Silica Exposures in Construction While Operating Handheld Masonry Saws

Silica in Construction: From Danger to Safety (YouTube)

Silica (Crystalline) - (CAREX Canada)

Control of Drywall Sanding Dust Exposures (CDC)

Gypsum Wallboard Panels Safety Data Sheet (American Gypsum Company LLC)

Father at centre of measles outbreak didn't vaccinate children due to autism fears - (CBC News, Feb 17, 2019 )

Guillain-Barré Syndrome Fact Sheet - (National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)

Campylobacter (Campylobacteriosis) (CDC)

BE ANTIBIOTICS AWARE: SMART USE, BEST CARE - "Antibiotics are only needed for treating certain infections caused by bacteria." " Be Antibiotics Aware is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) national educational effort to help improve antibiotic prescribing and use and combat antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is one of the most urgent threats to the public's health. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them. Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people get infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and at least 23,000 people die as a result. Antibiotics save lives, but any time antibiotics are used, they can cause side effects and lead to antibiotic resistance. About 30 percent of antibiotics, or 47 million prescriptions, are prescribed unnecessarily in doctors' offices and emergency departments in the United States, which makes improving antibiotic prescribing and use a national priority. Helping healthcare professionals improve the way they prescribe antibiotics, and improving the way we take antibiotics, helps keep us healthy now, helps fight antibiotic resistance, and ensures that these life-saving drugs will be available for future generations. (CDC)


Science Education - Being a Scientist - promotional information for students (NIH)

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide (NIOSH)

Don't Mess with MERCURY — A mercury spill prevention initiative for schools (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry)


Heads Up - Keeping children and teens healthy and safe is always a top priority. Whether you are a parent, youth sports coach, school coach, school professional, or health care provider, this site will help you recognize, respond to, and minimize the risk of concussion or other SERIOUS BRAIN INJURY. - (CDC)

REYE'S SYNDROME - Reye's syndrome is a very rare disorder that can cause serious liver and brain damage. If it's not treated promptly, it may lead to permanent brain injury or death. Reye's syndrome mainly affects children and young adults under 20 years of age. -
- Because of the possible link between ASPIRIN and Reye's syndrome, aspirin should only be given to children under 16 on the advice of a doctor when it's felt the potential benefits outweigh the risks. Children under 16 should also not take any products containing: acetylsalicylic acid
salicylic acid
salicylate salts - (U.K. NHS)

Reye's syndrome - Reye's (Reye) syndrome is a rare but serious condition that causes swelling in the liver and brain. Reye's syndrome most often affects children and teenagers recovering from a viral infection, most commonly the flu or chickenpox. Signs and symptoms such as confusion, seizures and loss of consciousness require emergency treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of Reye's syndrome can save a child's life. Aspirin has been linked with Reye's syndrome, so use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers for fever or pain. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin. (The Mayo Clinic)

FEVER - AboutKidsHealth, The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) and the University of Toronto - Elana Hochstadter, MD, Tania Principi, MD, FRCPC, MSc (4/27/2016)

The NEIGHBORHOOD SANDBOX: A BREEDING GROUND FOR GERMS - Bacteria, parasites and other nasty surprises may be hiding in the sand - by Steven Reinberg - WebMD

MYOPIA IS "INCREASING GLOBALLY AT AN ALARMING RATE," according to the WHO. It affects an estimated 1.89 billion people worldwide, and if rates don't change, that could rise to 2.56 billion by 2020 — a third of the population. - (World Health Organization)

Prescription to slow worsening myopia in Canadian kids? Head outdoors - (CBC News)

Don't Let GLAUCOMA Steal Your Sight!
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that damage the eye's optic nerve and can result in vision loss and even blindness. About 3 million Americans have glaucoma. It is the 2nd leading cause of blindness worldwide. Open-angle glaucoma, the most common form, results in increased eye pressure. There are often no early symptoms, which is why 50% of people with glaucoma don't know they have the disease. There is no cure (yet) for glaucoma, but if it's caught early, you can preserve your vision and prevent vision loss. Taking action to preserve your vision health is key. (CDC)


SLEEP EDUCATION - Essentials in Sleep (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)

"Why We Sleep: The New Science of Sleep and Dreams" (Professor Matthew Walker, Director of UC Berkeley's Sleep and Neuroimaging Lab, YouTube)

Fatigue (National Safety Council)

Lack of Sleep Takes Big Bite Out of World Economies (MedlinePlus)

SNORED TO DEATH: The symptoms and dangers of untreated sleep apnea - (2018, Harvard University)

Dr. Rachel Manber Discusses Sleeping Well as We Age - "A common misperception is that we do not need as much sleep as we age, but it turns out that we need a good night's sleep throughout our lifespan. This talk focuses on sleep mechanisms, addressing misconceptions and the practical things we can do to promote healthy sleep habits as we age. Sleep on!" - (video presentation) - (Stanford University Healthcare)


Healthy Sleep - 4 Signs You Might Have Sleep Apnea - (The Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Health System)

Lack of sleep may be linked to risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Preliminary NIH study shows increased levels of beta-amyloid. - (NIH)


Vitamin B12 de!ciency can be sneaky, harmful - (Harvard Health Publishing - Medical School blog)

Vitamin B12 - Fact Sheet (NIH)


Harvard Health Publisheing - (Harvard Medical School)

Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets (Perm J. 2013 Spring; 17(2): 61–66)

The Nutrition Source - Are anti-nutrients harmful? - The takeaway: The pros and cons of anti-nutrients on long-term human health is an area of active research. Though certain foods may contain residual amounts of anti-nutrients after processing and cooking, the health benefits of eating these foods outweigh any potential negative nutritional effects. Eating a variety of nutritious foods daily and avoiding eating large amounts of a single food at one meal can help to offset minor losses in nutrient absorption caused by anti-nutrients.
(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)

ERGONOMIC GUIDELINES for Manual Material Handling (Cal/OSHA Consultation Service)

THE COMPUTER USER'S GUIDE TO AN ERGONOMIC WORKSTATION (State of California Department of Personnel Administration)

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME Also called: Median nerve entrapment (MedlinePlus)

Persistent Pain in the Neck! What Resources Help you Prevent MSDs in the Workplace? (NIOSH)

Why sitting is bad for you - Murat Dalkilinç

Physical Strength Assessment in Ergonomics (CDC)

Simple Solutions for Home Building Workers - A Basic Guide for Preventing Manual Material Handling Injuries (CDC)

BACK PAIN AT WORK: Preventing pain and injury (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Sitting at your desk all day increases your risk for heart attack, stroke and even death (MedlinePlus)

Evaluating your computer workspace - How to make it work for you (Oregon OSHA Standards and Technical Resources)

CHEMICALS IN PRINTING (Health and Safety Executive - U.K)

TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) Fact Sheet (Toxics Use Reduction Institute - UMass Lowell)

PRINTER EMITTED PARTICLES: ARE THEY SAFE? (Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, T.H. Chan Harvard School of Public Health)

MAJOR MONTREAL EARTHQUAKE could cause $45 billion in damages: expert - While most B-C residents are mindful of the risk they face from a potentially devastating earthquake, it seems there's far less awareness of the quake threat in Eastern Canada (CTV News, January 13, 2018

A groundbreaking effort against 'the big one' {What may come as a surprise to many is the report's assessment that on the eastern side of the country, particularly in the Ottawa-Montreal-Quebec City corridor, there is a comparable risk. In that region, the chance of a seriously damaging earthquake is only about 10 per cent in the next 50 years. But the abundance of older buildings and a general lack of public awareness about how seismically active the area is could potentially lead to a costly outcome.} (Ivan Semeniuk, Science Reporter - THE GLOBE AND MAIL)

Fault Lines - A catastrophic earthquake hits Canada's West Coast. In Fault Lines CBC Vancouver Seismologist Johanna Wagstaffe guides you through two disastrous scenarios so you can prepare yourself, your family, and your neighbours. (CBC Radio Podcasts)



Emergency Management Home (Ontario Ministry of Community Safety)

Emergency Preparedness (Public Safety Canada)

Emergency Preparedness and Response - Protect Yourself and Your Loved Ones - Knowing what to do can help you and your loved ones stay safer and healthier when disaster strikes. Learn more about how to protect yourself and your loved ones from public health emergencies. - (CDC)

Plan Ahead for Disasters - "Talk with your family" (Department of Homeland Security)

A strategic framework for emergency preparedness - "The Strategic Framework for Emergency Preparedness is a unifying framework which identifies the principles and elements of effective country health emergency preparedness. It adopts the major lessons of previous initiatives and lays out the planning and implementation process by which countries can determine their priorities and develop or strengthen their operational capacities. The framework capitalizes on the strengths of current initiatives and pushes for more integrated action at a time when there is both increased political will and increased funding available to support preparedness efforts." (WHO)



HANTAVIRUS - Infection with hantavirus can progress to Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), which can be fatal. People become infected through contact with hantavirus-infected rodents or their urine and droppings. (CDC)

LEPTOSPIROSIS - Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for other diseases. Some infected persons, however, may have no symptoms at all. Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death - (CDC)

CAPNOCYTOPHAGA - Many species of Capnocytophaga bacteria live in the mouths of dogs and cats. These bacteria do not make dogs or cats sick. Rarely, Capnocytophaga species can spread to humans through bites, scratches, or close contact from a dog or cat and cause illness. Most people who have contact with a dog or cat do not become sick. People with a weakened immune systems who have difficulty fighting off infections (for example, people with cancer or those taking certain medications such as steroids) are at greater risk of becoming ill. - (CDC)

BEDBUGS; Adrien C. Ennis; Anthony L. Pearson-Shave - (NIH, May 18, 2019)

BEDBUGS, FLEAS, LICE, TICKS AND MITES - Ectoparasites that live on the body, in clothing and in beds - (WHO)

Bad Bugs Slideshow: Identifying Bugs and Their Bites - (WebMD, April 04, 2018)

How to avoid getting bedbugs this moving season - (CBC News)

Powassan Virus - is transmitted to humans by infected ticks (CDC)

Lone Star tick (CDC)

Meat Allergy - A bite from the Lone Star tick can cause people to develop an allergy to red meat, including beef and pork. (American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology)


WEST NILE VIRUS - is most commonly transmitted to humans by mosquitoes (CDC)

ZIKA VIRUS - What You Need to Know (CDC)

Insects - (The University of Minnesota)

Interim Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfection of Vehicles with Rodent Infestations (CDC)

Statement from Dr. David Williams, Ontario's Chief Medical Officer of Health, on Seoul Virus Infection to rat exposure in Ontario (Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care)

Wild Animals - Wild animals accounted for 92.6 percent of reported cases of rabies in 2014 (U.S.). Raccoons continued to be the most frequently reported rabid wildlife species (accounting for 30.2 percent of all animal cases during 2014), followed by bats (29.1 percent), skunks (26.3 percent), and foxes (4.1 percent). (CDC)

WHAT IS BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS? - "is a chronic disease of animals caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium bovis, (M.bovis) which is closely related to the bacteria that cause human and avian tuberculosis. This disease can affect practically all mammals, causing a general state of illness, coughing and eventual death." (OiE)

RABIES - Rabies is a deadly animal disease caused by a virus. It can happen in wild animals, including raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes, or in dogs, cats or farm animals. People get it from the bite of an infected animal. (MedlinePlus)

Man bit by raccoon believed to be rabid as virus spreads in Toronto - (CTV News, February 11, 2018)

Rabies - (CDC)

TULAREMIA - Tularemia is a disease of animals and humans caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Rabbits, hares, and rodents are especially susceptible and often die in large numbers during outbreaks. Humans can become infected through several routes, including: Tick and deer fly bites; Skin contact with infected animals; Ingestion of contaminated water; Inhalation of contaminated aerosols or agricultural dusts; Laboratory exposure - (CDC)

PLAGUE - Plague is an infectious disease that affects rodents, certain other animals, and humans. It is caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria. These bacteria are found in many areas of the world, including the United States. People most commonly acquire plague when they are bitten by a flea that is infected with the plague bacteria. People can also become infected from direct contact with infected tissues or fluids while handling an animal that is sick with or that has died from plague. Finally, people can become infected from inhaling respiratory droplets after close contact with cats and humans with pneumonic plague. (CDC)

PARASITES - Echinococcosis - People who accidentally swallow the eggs of the Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm are at risk for infection. People at high risk include trappers, hunters, veterinarians, or others who have contact with wild foxes, or coyotes, or their stool, or household dogs and cats that have the opportunity to eat wild rodents infected with AE. Humans can be exposed to these eggs by "hand-to-mouth" transfer or contamination. How do people get alveolar echinococcosis: By directly ingesting food items contaminated with stool from foxes or coyotes. This might include grass, herbs, greens, or berries gathered from fields. By petting or handling household dogs or cats infected with the Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm. These pets may shed the tapeworm eggs in their stool, and their fur may be contaminated. Some dogs "scent roll" in foreign material (such as wild animal feces) and may become contaminated this way. (CDC)

HISTOPLASMOSIS - Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by a fungus called Histoplasma. The fungus lives in the environment, particularly in soil that contains large amounts of bird or bat droppings (CDC)



Does wearing a face mask really protect against air pollution? "Despite being a common sight in polluted cities, particularly those in Asia, new research suggests that face masks designed to filter out pollution particles may not be as effective as they claim to be."
(CTV News, May 2018)


Spray foam insulation nightmare: What can happen if it's not installed correctly (CBC Marketplace)

Health Concerns about Spray Polyurethane Foam - Individuals with a history of skin conditions, respiratory allergies, asthma, or prior isocyanate sensitization should carefully review product information when considering the use of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) products and may want to consider safer alternatives. Manufacturers recommend in their isocyanate safety data sheets that individuals undergo medical surveillance prior to working with these materials and individuals with a history of medical conditions as described above will be restricted from work with isocyanates. - Read more about chemicals in SPF products. Misleading marketing information can result in spray foam applicators and home and building owners not understanding the need for adequate personal protective equipment and other precautions, such as ventilation, during and after installation. (U.S. FDA)

Safer Workplace Practices for Spray Polyurethane Foam Installation (U.S. FDA)

Fiberglass, Cellulose, or Foam: Which Is the Right Insulation Material for You? (Occupational Health and Safety online)

Bisphenol A - also called BPA, is a white solid that has been used since the 1960s to make plas!cs that are lightweight, clear, and hard. BPA plas!c products include older infant and baby bo"les, sippy cups, and toys. BPA can also be in water bo"les, plas!c dinnerware, reusable cups, food and drink packaging, and medical devices. Other products that may contain BPA include floorings, paints, food can and wine vat linings, and dental sealants. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that may interfere with the production or activity of human hormones. They include dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and plasticizers such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. (NIH, May 2017)

Could Canada see measles outbreaks like Europe? "The World Health Organization is warning about soaring rates of measles in Europe – a situation they're calling a tragedy. And while Canada has had nowhere near the number of cases, the fact that infections are on the rise is worrying, says one infectious diseases expert." (CTV News - February 27, 2018)



FUNGAL DISEASES - "Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health. Mild fungal skin diseases can look like a rash and are very common. Fungal diseases in the lungs are often similar to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly. (CDC)

HISTOPLASMOSIS - "Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by a fungus called Histoplasma. The fungus lives in the environment, particularly in soil that contains large amounts of bird or bat droppings. In the United States, Histoplasma mainly lives in the central and eastern states, especially areas around the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. People can get histoplasmosis after breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air. Although most people who breathe in the spores don’t get sick, those who do may have a fever, cough, and fatigue. Many people who get histoplasmosis will get better on their own without medication, but in some people, such as those who have weakened immune systems, the infection can become severe." (CDC)

How to avoid the hookworm skin infection on your next winter vacation to Mexico and the Caribbean - 'It's from dogs and cats pooping indiscriminately on the beaches,' tropical disease expert says (CBC News)

NIH News in Health - special issue of NIH News in Health, the monthly newsletter bringing you practical health news and tips based on the latest NIH research. This collection of popular stories about aging and senior health from past issues has been reviewed and updated (NIH)

Bloodborne Infectious Diseases: hiv/aids, hepatitis b, hepatitis c (WHO, July 2017)


Look what the cat dragged in: dead rats signal 'crisis,' Centretown (Ottawa, ON. woman warns (CBC News Dec 15, 2017)

SPIDER BITE gives Ont. woman a flesh-eating infection - (CTV News, 2018)

ILLNESSES FROM MOSQUITO, TICK, AND FLEA BITES Increasing in the US - Cases triple; better tools needed to fight mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas - (CDC - May 2018)

LYME DISEASE - (Government of Canada)

Manitoba Health information - TICKS CAN CARRY MORE THAN ONE DISEASE AT A TIME, SO IT'S POSSIBLE TO CONTRACT MULTIPLE INFECTIONS FROM JUST ONE BITE. Like Lyme, many tick-borne infections have flu-like symptoms – such as fever and headache – which makes diagnosis difficult. Lyme treatment is complicated by co-infections. Patients with co-infections often don't respond well to the usual treatments, and it takes an experienced doctor to properly identify and treat each tick-borne infection. Co-infection generally results in more severe illness, more symptoms, and a longer recovery. -
- Other Tick Borne Diseases Babesiosis Anaplasmosis Manitoba physicians have been advised as of the Spring of 2015, that cases of Anaplasmosis & Babesiosis have also been found in the province, and it is now reportable. Manitoba Health information on: Babesiosis & Anaplasmosis Ehrlichiosis Bartonella Colorado Tick Fever Mycoplasma Powwassan Virus Q Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Tick Paralysis Tick Borne Relapsing Fever caused by the bacterium Borrelia hermsii Tularemia Borrelia Miyamotoi - (Manitoba Lyme Disease information)

LIST OF DISEASES SPREAD BY DEER TICK GROWS, including malaria-like problems and potentially fatal encephalitis - (ScienceDaily)

Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections (University of Maryland Medical Center)

Lyme Disease - Learn how to avoid bites from blacklegged ticks, which may carry Lyme disease (The Ontario Ministry of Health)

GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME FACT SHEET - (National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)

Tick defence: Arm yourself with bug spray and knowledge - "LYME DISEASE is spreading across the country and health officials are predicting a record number of infections for the season after a nearly 50 per cent jump in reported cases last year. "It's likely that all provinces are affected with this," said Dr. Isaac Bogoch, an infectious disease specialist with Toronto General Hospital, on CTV's Your Morning on Wednesday. "There's just more and more cases of Lyme usually along the southern border of Canada, but we've seen a lot in Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba, B.C. - The number of cases has increased from just 144 in 2009, to nearly 1,500 in 2017, according to government data. It's not clear what is causing the spread, though researchers have suggested a number of factors may play a part, from birds carrying ticks around the country to global warming providing warmer temperatures for the bugs to thrive." (CTV News, May 23, 2018 )

Removing and submitting ticks for testing - (Government of Canada)

Tick season arrives in Manitoba; officials warn of new illnesses - (CTV News, May 23, 2018)

Every season is tick season': Experts warn of winter Lyme disease risk - "People have 'let their guard down' and aren't checking for ticks as weather cools, says zoologist" (CBC News - Nov 22, 2017)

Tularemia - Tularemia is a disease of animals and humans caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Rabbits, hares, and rodents are especially susceptible and often die in large numbers during outbreaks. Humans can become infected through several routes, including: Tick and deer fly bites Skin contact with infected animals Ingestion of contaminated water Inhalation of contaminated aerosols or agricultural dusts - (CDC)

The Development of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (Gbs) in Association with Confirmed Lyme Disease. A Potential Autoimmune Response in Gbs Secondary to Tick-Borne Diseases? - Seemal F Awan et al (Clin Microbiol 4:199. doi: 10.4172/2327-5073.1000199)

The Lancet Commission on pollution and health "For decades, pollution and its harmful effects on people's health, the environment, and the planet have been neglected both by Governments and the international development agenda. Yet, pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and death in the world today, responsible for an estimated 9 million premature deaths" ( Elsevier Limited - October 19, 2017)

Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice - Anhydrous Ammonia (CDC)

Cannabis legislation fails to protect Canada's youth - Diane Kelsall, MD MEd (CMAJ May 29, 2017 vol. 189 no. 21)

TATTOO INK NANOPARTICLES in skin tissue and fibroblasts (Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology - 2015, 6, 1183–1191. doi:10.3762/bjnano.6.120)

Nanoparticles from tattoos travel inside the body, scientists find (ScienceDaily, 2017)

Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? (U.S. FDA, May 2, 2017)

'Toxic' tattoo ink particles can travel to your lymph nodes: study (Global News, September 15, 2017)

Consumer Product Update: Health Canada warns of potential risks of tattoo removal products (Health Canada, February 24, 2015)

In the Ink: Do All Tattoo Pigments Use Mercury and Other Toxic Heavy Metals? (2017 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN)

NEW REPORT HIGHLIGHTS HAZARDS OF SALON WORK - Hair and nail salons can expose workers to a daily barrage of chemicals capable of causing serious health effects says a new report - (Workers Health & Safety Centre Ontario)

Nail Technicians' Health and Workplace Exposure Control (CDC)

Hair and Nail Salons - (Tox Town)

Dangerous beauty: Salon worker health is in the spotlight (National Safety Counil)

Health Hazard Manual for Cosmetologists, Hairdressers, Beauticians and Barbers - (Nellie J. Brown, Cornell University)

Hairdresser Safety Sheet (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety)

Hair Smoothing Products That Could Release Formaldehyde - Recent reports from Federal OSHA, Oregon OSHA, and California OSHA should alert salon owners and stylists to look closely at the hair smoothing products they are using to see if they contain methylene glycol, formalin, methylene oxide, paraform, formic aldehyde, methanal, oxomethane, oxymethylene, or CAS Number 50-00-0. All of these are names for or treated as formaldehyde under OSHA's Formaldehyde standard. There are also chemicals, such as timonacic acid (also called thiazolidinecarboxylic acid), that can release formaldehyde under certain conditions, such as those present during the hair smoothing treatment process. Products that contain these chemicals can expose workers to formaldehyde.

Hair Straightening Products Containing Formaldehyde (Women's Voices for the Earth)

FORMALDEHYDE AND CANCER RISK (U.S. National Cancer Institute)

FIRE SAFETY - Safety tip sheets - (National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2017)

Flame Retardants - Flame retardants are chemicals that are added or applied to materials in order to slow or prevent the start or growth of fire. - What are some of the potential health effects associated with flame retardants? - (NIH Fact Sheet)

Flame Retardants (NIH - U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health)

Aartments - Fire Safety - {People living in an apartment building need to think ahead and be prepared in the event of a fire. It is important to know the fire safety features in your building and work together with neighbors to help keep the building as fire-safe as possible.} (National Fire Protection Association - NFPA)

FAQs about building evacuation (NFPA)

Canadian fire extinguishers recalled for being defective - An American company is recalling 37 million fire extinguishers in the U.S. and 2.7 million in Canada because they can get clogged or require excessive force to discharge and won't work in an emergency - (CBC News - Nov 02, 2017)

Home Fire Safety - Learn how your family can prevent home fires, escape from a home fire in 2 minutes, and recover after a home fire - (The American National Red Cross)

9-volt batteries power our smoke alarms, household items and toys. They can be found in most homes. But these batteries can be a fire hazard if not stored safely or disposed of with care. (NFPA)

Reducing Risk of spontaneous ignition fires in laundries (Worksafe BC)

Canadian Codes Centre (National Research Council Canada)

High-rise buildings - High-rise buildings present several unique challenges not found in traditional low-rise buildings; longer egress times and distance, evacuation strategies, fire department accessibility, smoke movement and fire control. (NFPA)


Summary Safety Review - Fluoroquinolones - Assessing the potential risk of persistent and disabling side effects [Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Norfloxacin and Ofloxacin] - (Health Canada)

Kimberly-Clark Announces Voluntary Recall of U by Kotex® Sleek® Tampons, Regular Absorbency, Throughout U.S. and Canada, December 11, 2018 - (Kimberly-Clark Corporation)

Health Product Complaint Form - (Health Canada)

SEARCH RECALLS AND SAFETY ALERTS - (Government of Canada - Health)


About PESTICIDES - (Government of Canada)

Poison Plants: Myths and Facts (WebMD)

GIANT HOGWEED - (Ontario Invasive Plant Council)

Canadians warned to look out for invasive giant hogweed that burns, blinds - (CTV News, June, 22, 2018)

Poison Ivy and Other Plants: What You Should Know (WebMD)

DISEASES AND CONDITIONS - (Government of Canada - Health)

Diseases & Conditions A-Z List (

Metabolic syndrome - "Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. These conditions include increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels."" Metabolic syndrome is increasingly common, and up to one-third of U.S. adults have it. If you have metabolic syndrome or any of its components, aggressive lifestyle changes can delay or even prevent the development of serious health problems." - (Mayo Clinic)

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication - (MedicineNet)

Venous Thromboembolism (Blood Clots) - Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) - "s a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a deep vein. These blood clots usually develop in the lower leg, thigh, or pelvis, but can also occur in the arm. The most serious complication of DVT occurs when a part of the blood clot breaks off and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs, causing a blockage known as a pulmonary embolism (PE). If the blood clot is small, and with appropriate treatment, people can recover from a PE; however, some damage to the lungs may remain. If the blood clot is large, it can stop blood from reaching the lungs, which can be deadly." - (CDC)


INVASIVE MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE - Invasive meningococcal disease can lead to: meningitis, a dangerous infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord, and/or septicemia, a serious blood infection. Invasive meningococcal disease is spread through close, direct contact such as: living in close living quarters, kissing, coughing or sneezing, sharing food or drinks sharing toothbrushes, mouthguards, cigarettes or lipstick, sharing mouthed toys, or musical instruments with a mouthpiece. (Public Health Agency of Canada)

SHINGLES (HERPES ZOSTER) - Shingles is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes chickenpox. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus stays dormant (inactive) in the body. For reasons that are not fully known, the virus can reactivate years later, causing shingles. Shingles is not caused by the same virus that causes genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease. (CDC)

Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Fact Sheet - (CDC)

NON-POLIO ENTEROVIRUS - Non-polio enteroviruses are very common. They cause about 10 to 15 million infections and tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year in the United States. Most people who get infected with these viruses do not get sick or they only have mild illness, like the common cold. But some people can have serious complications, especially infants and people with weakened immune systems (CDC)

SARCOIDOSIS - Symptoms and causes (Mayo Clinic)

Health A-Z - Conditions and treatments (GOV.UK)

5 Germy Items You Probably Don't Clean - (University of Utah Health)

What Your Shoes Bring Home - (University of Utah Health)

HEALTH INFORMATION (U.S. National Institutes of Health)

Harvard Health Publications (Harvard Medical School)


OnHealth (WebMD

University of California - Research in the News - (UCSF)

OSTEOPOROSIS - "Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of fractures of the hip, spine, and wrist. Men as well as women are affected by osteoporosis, a disease that can be prevented and treated. In the United States, more than 53 million people either already have osteoporosis or are at high risk due to low bone mass." - (NIH)

Osteoporosis - By Marcy B. Bolster , MD, Harvard Medical School - (Merck Manual)

UNDERSTANDING INFLAMMATION "Inflammation has been found to be an underlying cause in many diseases, making it a hot topic in the health media. But what do we really know about chronic inflammation and its effects on the body?" (Johns Hopkins Health Review Spring/Summer 2016 Volume 3 Issue 1 - Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Medicine)

What you can do to prevent ALZHEIMER'S - Lisa Genova- - (TED)

ALCOHOL USE BIGGEST PREVENTABLE RISK FACTOR FOR DEMENTIA: "Heavy drinking may be associated with a higher risk for developing dementia, particularly early-onset dementia, according to a new study. Researchers from a number of organizations, including The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto, studied the association between alcohol use disorders and the development of all types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease"- (CTV News, February 20, 2018)

What Are FRONTOTEMPORAL DISORDERS? (National Institute on Aging)

Quick Facts about ALS - AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS), more commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that attacks nerve cells and pathways in the brain and spinal cord. When these cells die, voluntary muscle control and movement dies with them. Patients in the later stages of the disease are totally paralyzed, yet in most cases, their minds remain sharp and alert. Every day, an average of 15 people are newly diagnosed with ALS — more than 5,600 people per year. As many as 30,000 Americans may currently be affected by ALS. Annually, ALS is responsible for two deaths per 100,000 people. The average life expectancy of a person with ALS is two to five years from time of diagnosis. With recent advances in research and improved medical care, many patients are living longer, more productive lives. Half of all those affected live at least three years or more after diagnosis. About 20 percent live five years or more, and up to ten percent will survive more than ten years. ALS occurs throughout the world with no racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic boundaries. ALS can strike anyone. Every single American is threatened by this disease. - (The ALS Association)

Explore Our Slideshows (

Aortic Aneurysm Fact Sheet (CDC - Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention)

Home Blood Pressure Monitors Wrong 7 of 10 Times - Checking your device against ones used at your doctor's office may be advised, experts say (WebMd)

CEREBRAL ANEURYSMS Fact Sheet - Aneurysms may burst and bleed into the brain, causing serious complications, including hemorrhagic stroke, permanent nerve damage, or death. Once it has burst, the aneurysm may burst again and bleed into the brain, and additional aneurysms may also occur. More commonly, rupture may cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage— bleeding into the space between the skull bone and the brain. A delayed but serious complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage is hydrocephalus, in which the excessive buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull dilates fluid pathways called ventricles that can swell and press on the brain tissue. Another delayed postrupture complication is vasospasm, in which other blood vessels in the brain contract and limit blood flow to vital areas of the brain. This reduced blood flow can cause stroke or tissue damage (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health - 2017)

INFECTIOUS DISEASES INFORMATION - (Public Health Agency of Canada)

Infectious Diseases - (Public Health Ontario)

Understanding recurrent tonsillitis - Tonsillitis, or swelling of the tonsils, is usually caused by a viral infection. But it can also be caused by strep bacteria, Streptococcus pyogenes. Parents of young children are all too familiar with the symptoms of this type of tonsillitis, also known as strep throat. These can include fever, a sore throat, and swelling in the lymph nodes and tonsils. - (NIH)

LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE "Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia — lung inflammation usually caused by infection. Legionnaires' disease is caused by a bacterium known as legionella. You can't catch legionnaires' disease from person-to-person contact. Instead, most people get legionnaires' disease from inhaling the bacteria. Older adults, smokers and people with weakened immune systems are particularly susceptible to legionnaires' disease. - The bacterium Legionella pneumophila is responsible for most cases of legionnaires' disease. Outdoors, legionella bacteria survive in soil and water, but rarely cause infections. Indoors, though, legionella bacteria can multiply in all kinds of water systems — hot tubs, air conditioners and mist sprayers in grocery store produce departments. Although it's possible to contract legionnaires' disease from home plumbing systems, most outbreaks have occurred in large buildings, perhaps because complex systems allow the bacteria to grow and spread more easily. - Most people become infected when they inhale microscopic water droplets containing legionella bacteria. This might be the spray from a shower, faucet or whirlpool, or water dispersed through the ventilation system in a large building. Outbreaks have been linked to a range of sources, including: Hot tubs and whirlpools on cruise ships Grocery store mist machines Cooling towers in air conditioning systems Decorative fountains Swimming pools Physical therapy equipment Water systems in hotels, hospitals and nursing homes " - (Mayo Clinic)


WHO's 'priority pathogens' list highlights urgent need for new drugs - Bacteria are getting tougher, but no truly novel antibiotics have made it to market in 30 years (CBC News)

Skin Infections: What You Should Know - Slide Show (WebMD)

Information Leaflets for the General Public - (Health Protection Surveillance Centre, Dublin, Ireland)

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (Infrastructure Health & Safety Association)

Mumps makes a comeback in Canada and the U.S. (CBC News)


Indoor Environmental Quality (NIOSH)

Office Environment Safety (NIOSH)

The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality (U.S. EPA)


What to Wear before entering a Home or Building with Mold Damage - (CDC)

Moisture and Air - A Guide for Understanding and Fixing Interior Moisture Problems in Housing (Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation)

I had no idea,' heat pump owner says about potential for mould"- (Mar 05, 2018)

Basement Insulation Systems - Basements can easily develop mold, rot, and odor problems if not designed properly. Building America researchers have investigated basement insulation systems that keep the space dry, healthy, and odor-free. These systems effectively address the complexity of heat and moisture movement through basement walls (U.S. Department of Energy)

Before You Start an Energy Efficient Retrofit — Mechanical Systems (Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation)

Basement Insulation Systems (U.S. Department of Energy)

Standard Practice for Installation of Cellulosic and Mineral Fiber Loose-Fill Thermal Insulation

Where to Insulate in a Home (U.S. Department of Energy)

Healthy Housing Reference Manual - Indoor Air Pollutants and Toxic Materials (CDC)

Making a Healthier Home - Cast Toxins From Your Living Space (NIH)

CARBON MONOXIDE - FURNACE SAFETY FACT SHEET - When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out - (CDC)

The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality (U.S. EPA)

FUNGAL DISEASES - Fungal diseases can affect anyone. Learning about them can help you and your doctor recognize the symptoms of a fungal disease early and may help prevent serious complications (CDC)

MOULD "Moulds can grow almost everywhere and for some people the inhalation of the mould or spores can lead to health problems or make certain health conditions worse. The best method of prevention is to reduce the amount of moisture in the workplace." (CCOHS)

An Office Building Occupants Guide to Indoor Air Quality (U.S. EPA)

The Mold Survival Guide by Jeffrey C. May (Johns Hopkins University Press)

Beyond the dark spots and musty smells. - Keeping you safe from Mould (Canadian Occupational Safety / and 3M Corporation)

Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from Exposures Caused by Dampness in Office Buildings, Schools, and Other Nonindustrial Buildings (CDC)


Private Ground Water Wells - (CDC)

Drinking Water - Information (CDC)

Water Safety in Distribution Systems - Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health (WHO)

Ground Water Awareness Week (CDC, March 2018)

Arsenic Factsheet "People are most likely to be exposed to inorganic arsenic through drinking water and to a lesser extent through various foods. Water sources in some parts of the United States have higher naturally occurring levels of inorganic arsenic than other areas. Other sources of inorganic arsenic exposure include contact with contaminated soil or with wood preserved with arsenic.People are exposed to organic arsenic by consuming seafood." (CDC, April 7, 2017)

Preventing CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS: the need for safe drinking water - (Bulletin of the World Health Organization)

The USGS Water Science School - Groundwater - (U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey)

CYANOBACTERIA BLOOMS - "Cyanobacteria, also called blue-green algae, are microscopic organisms found naturally in all types of water. These single-celled organisms live in fresh, brackish (combined salt and fresh water), and marine water. These organisms use sunlight to make their own food. In warm, nutrient-rich (high in phosphorus and nitrogen) environments, cyanobacteria can multiply quickly, creating blooms that spread across the water's surface. The blooms might become visible. Blooms can form in warm, slow-moving waters that are rich in nutrients from sources such as fertilizer runoff or septic tank overflows. Cyanotoxins are among the most powerful natural poisons known. They can make people, their pets, and other animals sick. Unfortunately, there are no remedies to counteract the effects." (CDC)

Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB)-Associated Illness - (CDC)


Pool parasite: Swimmers urged to take simple steps to avoid Cryptosporidium (CBC News -May 20, 2017)

Beware of contaminated pool water: Outbreaks of a parasitic diarrhea-causing infection linked to pools and water playgrounds doubled in the United States from 2014 to 2016. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention YouTube Presentation)


CAUSES OF FOOD POISONING - Common Causes of Food Poisoning list (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)

Food Poisoning (Healthline)

Food safety investigation: outbreak of E. coli infections linked to romaine lettuce - The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is collaborating with provincial public health partners, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, as well as the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States Food and Drug Administration, to investigate an outbreak of E. coli infections in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and several U.S. states.

Food Recall Warning - Certain cauliflower, red leaf lettuce and green leaf lettuce produced by Adam Bros Farming Inc. recalled due to E. coli O157:H7 (December 15, 2018, Canada Food Inspection Agency)

Food Facts: Food Safety (Institute of Food Technologists)

Food Safety (Health Canada)

DEAR MEAT from contaminated Quebec farm released for human consumption - "'I think we're teetering on the edge of a catastrophe,' says UBC professor" - "Canadians are being warned about the spread of a deadly animal disease that has the potential to infect humans especially after some of the animals were released for human consumption. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is similar to mad cow disease (formally known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE). It infects deer, elk, and moose and it's spread by a protein — called a prion — which has the unusual ability to spread between animals causing a deadly wasting disease." (Jun 22, 2019; CBC NEWS)

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) of deer and elk (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)

Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli & Food Safety - Some kinds of E. coli bacteria cause disease when they make a toxin called Shiga toxin. The bacteria that make these toxins are called "Shiga toxin-producing E. coli," or STEC for short. The most common type of STEC in the United States is E.coli O157:H7 (often shortened to E. coli O157 or even just O157). - (CDC)

Public Health Notice – Outbreak of E. COLI INFECTIONS linked to romaine lettuce.
"E. coli are bacteria that live naturally in the intestines of cattle, poultry and other animals. A common source of E. coli illness is raw fruits and vegetables that have come in contact with feces from infected animals. Leafy greens, such as lettuce, can become contaminated in the field by soil, contaminated water, animals or improperly composted manure. Lettuce can also be contaminated by bacteria during and after harvest from handling, storing and transporting the produce. Contamination in lettuce is also possible at the grocery store, in the refrigerator, or from counters and cutting boards through cross-contamination with harmful bacteria from raw meat, poultry or seafood. Most E. coli strains are harmless to humans, but some varieties cause illness."(Public Health Agency of Canada - 2018-01-10)

HEPATITIS A Questions and Answers for the Public (CDC)

Hepatitis A Fact Sheet (WHO, July 2017)

Hepatitis A - Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus is one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause inflammation and affect your liver's ability to function. You're most likely to get hepatitis A from contaminated food or water or from close contact with a person or object that's infected. Mild cases of hepatitis A don't require treatment. Most people who are infected recover completely with no permanent liver damage. Practicing good hygiene, including washing hands frequently, is one of the best ways to protect against hepatitis A. Vaccines are available for people most at risk (Mayo Clinic)

Salmonella and Eggs - Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious and economical foods. But you must take special care when handling and preparing fresh eggs and egg products to avoid foodborne illness, also known as food poisoning (CDC)

Best Before and Expiration Dates on Foods – What do they mean? (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)

The National Center for Home Food Preservation (The University of Georgia | College of Family and Consumer Sciences)

CAMPYLOBACTER (Campylobacteriosis) - Campylobacter infection is diagnosed when a laboratory test detects Campylobacter bacteria in stool, body tissue, or fluids. The test could be a culture that isolates the bacteria or a rapid diagnostic test that detects genetic material of the bacteria. Most people with Campylobacter infection recover without specific treatment. Patients should drink extra fluids as long as diarrhea lasts. Antibiotics are needed only for patients who are very ill or at high risk for severe disease, such as people with severely weakened immune systems, such as people with the blood disorders thalassemia and hypogammaglobulinemia, AIDS, or people receiving chemotherapy. (CDC)

The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Nov; 10(11): 5886–5907 - (NCBI)

LISTERIA (LISTERIOSIS) Listeriosis is a serious infection usually caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. An estimated 1,600 people get listeriosis each year, and about 260 die. The infection is most likely to sicken pregnant women and their newborns, adults aged 65 or older, and people with weakened immune systems. - (CDC) {Listeriosis can cause fever, muscle aches, headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance and convulsions sometimes preceded by diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms. An invasive infection spreads beyond the gastrointestinal tract. In pregnant women, the infection can cause miscarriages, stillbirths, premature delivery or life-threatening infection of the newborn. In addition, serious and sometimes fatal infections can occur in older adults and persons with weakened immune systems. Listeriosis is treated with antibiotics. Persons in the higher-risk categories who experience flu-like symptoms within two months after eating contaminated food should seek medical care and tell the health care provider about eating the contaminated food.}

E.COLI (ESCHERICHIA COLI) - Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. E. coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses - (CDC)

Bakers beware: How E. coli in flour can make you sick (CTV News)

NOROVIRUS — Noroviruses are a group of viruses that cause gastroenteritis, an illness that usually includes diarrhea and/or vomiting. Noroviruses are commonly found throughout North America and are very infectious. (Public Health Agency of Canada)

Norovirus - "Most foodborne outbreaks of norovirus illness occur when food is contaminated by food handlers who have the virus, especially if they don't wash their hands properly after using the bathroom. Some foods can be contaminated at their source (for instance, shellfish such as oysters can be contaminated by sewage in water before they are harvested). Waterborne outbreaks are often caused by sewage contamination of drinking water from wells and recreational water" (Public Health Agency of Canada)

Norovirus (Norwalk Virus) (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services)

Norovirus - "Norovirus is a very contagious virus that can infect anyone. You can get it from an infected person, contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. The virus causes your stomach or intestines or both to get inflamed. This leads you to have stomach pain, nausea, and diarrhea and to throw up. These symptoms can be serious for some people, especially young children and older adults" "Norovirus illness is not related to the flu, which is a respiratory illness caused by influenza virus." (CDC- 2016)

SALMONELLA - Every year, Salmonella is estimated to cause one million foodborne illnesses in the United States, with 19,000 hospitalizations and 380 deaths. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most persons recover without treatment. However, in some persons, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. - (CDC)

TRICHINELLOSIS - Fact Sheet - Trichinellosis (trichinosis) is a disease that can affect both animals and humans. It is caused by small nematodes (roundworms) of the Trichinella species. Infective larvae are transferred (from host-to-host) by the consumption of raw or undercooked infected meat. (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services)

VIBRIO SPECIES Causing Vibriosis - Vibriosis causes an estimated 80,000 illnesses and 100 deaths in the United States every year. People with vibriosis become infected by consuming raw or undercooked seafood or exposing a wound to seawater. Most infections occur from May through October when water temperatures are warmer - (CDC)

ANISAKIASIS: a growing cause of abdominal pain! [caused by the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked fish or seafood] - (BMJ Case Reports 2017)

VIRAL HEPATITIS A - Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is highly contagious. It is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route, either through person-to-person contact or consumption of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis A is a self-limited disease that does not result in chronic infection. More than 80% of adults with Hepatitis A have symptoms but the majority of children do not have symptoms or have an unrecognized infection. Antibodies produced in response to Hepatitis A last for life and protect against reinfection. The best way to prevent Hepatitis A is by getting vaccinated - (CDC)

Days after giving birth to a baby boy, mom dies of strep A in hospital - "Hospital wouldn't comment specifically on Ayesha Riaz's case, but confirms 3 cases of infection in February" (CBC News, Mar 08, 2018)

Diseases Caused by Group A Strep (CDC)


Flesh-eating disease rapidly attacks Halifax woman - "According to the Public Health Agency of Canada, streptococcus A is a common bacterium usually transmitted through direct contact with or inhalation of discharges or droplets from an infected person's nose or mouth." (CTV News, March 17, 2018)

Necrotizing Fasciitis - "Necrotizing fasciitis (neck-ro-tie-zing Fas-e-i-tis) is a serious bacterial skin infection that spreads quickly and kills the body's soft tissue. (Necrotizing means "causing the death of tissues.") Unfortunately, necrotizing fasciitis can be deadly in a very short amount of time. Accurate diagnosis, prompt antibiotic treatment (medicine that kills bacteria in the body), and surgery are important to stopping this infection. Although the media commonly calls it a "flesh-eating infection," more than one type of bacterium can cause this rare disease. These bacteria include:
group A Streptococcus (group A strep),
Escherichia coli,
Staphylococcus aureus,
Aeromonas hydrophila
Public health experts consider group A strep to be the most common cause of necrotizing fasciitis. Common sense and good wound care are the best ways to prevent a bacterial skin infection. Keep draining or open wounds covered with clean, dry bandages until healed. Don't delay first aid of even minor, non-infected wounds (like blisters, scrapes, or any break in the skin). Avoid spending time in whirlpools, hot tubs, swimming pools, and natural bodies of water (e.g., lakes, rivers, oceans) if you have an open wound or skin infection. Wash hands often with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand rub if washing is not possible." (CDC)

WHAT IS SEPSIS? - Sepsis is the body's extreme response to an infection. It is life-threatening, and without timely treatment, sepsis can rapidly cause tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Sepsis happens when an infection you already have – in your skin, lungs, urinary tract or somewhere else – triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. (CDC)

INFLAMMATION AND YOUR HEALTH — what you need to know - Protect yourself from chronic disease with this new guide. Heart disease. Rheumatoid arthritis. Diabetes. Alzheimer's. These and other chronic diseases, affecting the lives of millions of Americans, have something in common — do you know what it is? The answer is inflammation. (Harvard Health Publishing )

National Diabetes Prevention Program (CDC, August 10, 2018)

Probiotics - A live microorganism used as a dietary supplement to help with digestion and normal bowel function. It may also help keep the gastrointestinal (GI) tract healthy. A bacterium found in yogurt called Lactobacillus acidophilus, is the most common probiotic. (PubMed Health)

Keeping Your Gut in Check Healthy Options to Stay on Tract (NIH News in Health, May 2017)


How to Reduce Exposure to Radiofrequency Energy From Cell Phones (Division of Environmental andOccupationalDisease Control • CaliforniaDepartment of PublicHealth)

The secret inside your cellphone (CBC Marketplace)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RF fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans," based on limited evidence of a possible increase in risk for brain tumors among cell phone users, and inadequate evidence for other types of cancer. (American Cancer Society, Inc. - 2017)


Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge and Biosolids Beneficial Practice and Appropriate Technology Guide - (Enviseng Environmental Consulting Services)

Guide to Field Storage of Biosolids - (U.S. EPA - Office of Wastewater Management)

Guidance For Controlling Potential Risks To Workers Exposed to Class B Biosolids - (CDC)

Guidance for Reducing Health Risks to Workers Handling Human Waste or Sewage - (CDC)

Assessment of Occupational Exposure Risks to Sewage Workers - Cowie, C et al (Epidemiology: November 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 6)

Waste collectors 3 times more likely to be hurt on the job "Public needs to realize their curbside is collectors' workplace" (by Amanda Silliker, 12/11/2017 Canadian Occupational Safety)

OSH Answers Fact Sheets - What are some health and safety issues for plumbers? (CCOHS)

WEATHER LIBRARY > Lightning FAQ: What happens when lightning strikes a house? (by Dan Robinson -


Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People - (US Dept of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Safety)

Wind Chill and Humidex Calculators - (Government of Canada) :

Humidex vs. Heat Index: What's the difference? (The Weather Network)

Canadian Humidex Calculator

HEAT-RELATED ILLNESS - Occupational exposure to heat can result in illnesses, injuries, reduced productivity, and death (CDC)

NOTICE: HEAT STRESS - Health Hazards - (CDC)

Heat Stress - Heat Related Illness - (CDC)

Infographic: Avoid Spot Treat: Heat Stroke & Heat Exhaustion - (CDC)

TORNADO SAFETY - (Storm Prediction Center Norman, Oklahoma)

Tornadoes: Before, During & After - (Canadian Red Cross)

Tornadoes: Information & Facts - (Canadian Red Cross)

FEMA P-320 - Taking Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Room for Your Home or Small Business - (U.S. Department of Homeland Security - Federal Emergency Management Agency)

6 ways to tornado-proof your home - (Rosalie L. Donlon | July 29, 2015, Property Casualty360)

Cost vs. safety: A novel design for tornado proof homes - (ScienceDirect - HBRC Journal Volume 13, Issue 2, August 2017)

Residential Damage Patterns Following the 2011 Tuscaloosa, AL and Joplin, MO Tornadoes - (D. B. Roueche1 and D. O. Prevatt1 1 Engineering School of Sustainable Infrastructure and the Environment, University of Florida)

Natural Disasters and Severe Weather - What You Need to Know When the Power Goes Out Unexpectedly (CDC)

SNOW LOADS – when to shovel your roof - National Research Council Canada

Can shoveling snow put your heart at risk? - (Robert H. Shmerling, MD, Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publishing)

Infographic: Avoid Spot Treat: Frostbite & Hypothermia - Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response - (CDC)

National Weather Service Safety Tips - (US Dept of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Safety)

RIP TIDE SAFETY Training - (US Dept of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Safety)


Bovine tuberculosis - (The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE))


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk - "Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a progressive, fatal disease of the nervous system of cervids such as deer, and elk. It is known as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease. Other TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans." - (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)

Quebec farm under quarantine after animal with chronic wasting disease discovered in Laurentians - "CWD, which affects the nervous systems of deer and elk, found in Quebec for first time" (CBC News, Sep 14, 2018)


Chemicals & Contaminants - "Learn about common hazardous chemicals and contaminants, their possible health effects, and how you can protect yourself." - (TOX Town, NIH)


DIESEL HAZARDS - Breathing diesel fuel vapors or exhaust for a long time can cause: Respiratory disease, Kidney damage, Increased blood pressure, Lowering of the blood's ability to clot, CANCER (U.S. National Library of Medicine)

DIESEL EXHAUST AND CANCER - Diesel exhaust is made up of 2 main parts: gases and soot (particles). Each of these, in turn, is made up of many different substances. Exhaust from diesel engines brings a complex mixture of soot and gases to roadways, cities, farms, and other places. Health concerns about diesel exhaust relate not only to cancer, but also to other health problems such as lung and heart diseases. (2018, American Cancer Society, Inc.)

Diesel - Diesel exhaust is a mixture of gases and tiny particles. This exhaust contains carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds, formaldehyde, benzene, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), methanol, and other gases. (TOX TOWN)

Compendium of Chemical Hazards - DIESEL - (Chemical Hazards and Poisons Division (HQ), Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom)

Health Protection Agency Compendium of CHEMICAL HAZARDS: DIESEL -
(Robert P Chilcott Chemical Hazards and Poisons Division (HQ), Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom)

PHTHALATES - Phthalates are a group of chemicals used to soften and increase the flexibility of plastic and vinyl.  Polyvinyl chloride is made softer and more flexible by the addition of phthalates. Phthalates are used in hundreds of consumer products.  Phthalates are used in cosmetics and personal care products, including perfume, hair spray, soap, shampoo, nail polish, and skin moisturizers. They are used in consumer products such as flexible plastic and vinyl toys, shower curtains, wallpaper, vinyl miniblinds, food packaging, and plastic wrap. Phthalates are also used in wood finishes, detergents, adhesives, plastic plumbing pipes, lubricants, medical tubing and fluid bags, solvents, insecticides, medical devices, building materials, and vinyl flooring. The substance has been linked to hormonal interference, as well as declines in IQ, and respiratory problems in children. (TOX TOWN - NIH)

To Eliminate Waste, We Need to Rediscover Thrift - "There's no such thing as throwing something away, says Andrew Dent -- when you toss a used food container, broken toy or old pair of socks into the trash, those things inevitably end up in ever-growing landfills. But we can get smarter about the way we make, and remake, our products. Dent shares exciting examples of thrift -- the idea of using and reusing what you need so you don't have to purchase anything new -- as well as advances in material science, like electronics made of nanocellulose and enzymes that can help make plastic infinitely recyclable." (Dr. Andrew Dent - TED Presentation)

Many Canadians are RECYCLING wrong, and it's costing us millions - (CBC NEWS, April 6, 2018)

Management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material in Canada - (Environment and Climate Change Canada)

Hazardous Waste and Recyclable Material - What are hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials and why do they need to be controlled? - (Environment and Climate Change Canada)

Palytoxin - Human Health Effects - (TOXNET)

10 kinds of packaging that are a pain in the blue box - Breaking down why they're a challenge for recycling systems and some possible solutions (CBC News, May 14, 2018)

How to dispose of household hazardous waste - (The David Suzuki Foundation)

5 Steps to Clean Your Refrigerator - If you have a recalled food item in your refrigerator, it's important to throw out the food and clean your refrigerator. Germs in the recalled food could spread to drawers or shelves in your refrigerator. How to Clean your Refrigerator After a Food Recall - (CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

LEAD - "While lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring element found in rock and soil, extensive man-made use has resulted in its widespread presence in the environment. Environmental lead concentrations are extensively measured and reported by national, provincial, and municipal initiatives across Canada. Lead is found in air, dust and soil in Canada as well as in food and drinking water. Levels of lead in the environment have declined significantly over the past few decades." - (Health Canada)

MICROPLASTICS found in some Canadian bottled water - Tests show tiny particles but any effect on human health not known - (CBC NEWS, April 6, 2019)

Plastic in your bottled water? WHO to weigh risks - The World Health Organization says it will review the potential risks of tiny plastic particles in bottled water after a study found "widespread" microplastic contamination (CTV News, March 15, 2018)

Toxic coral in home aquarium blamed for making Gatineau family sick - Zoanthid coral is a popular feature of saltwater aquariums, but can release a dangerous toxin - Zoanthid coral could contain a substance called palytoxin - (CBC News)


Basic Information about Ozone (FDA)

HEALTH EFFECTS OF OZONE (European Environment Agency)

Ozone Safe Practices (WorkSafe BC)

Ozone Pollution Grows, but It Can Be Fixed (Scientific American)

Healthy living can prevent disease (Public Health Agency of Canada)

Staying Healthy (Harvard Health Publications - Harvard University)

Health risks and safety - Access information about recalls and safety alerts, as well as tips on home safety and being prepared in an emergency (Government of Canada Health)

Health and Safety Information on Household Product (U.S. National Library of Medicine / NIH)

INSTITUTE OF AGING - Seniors are the fastest growing age group in Canada. By the year 2026, seniors will constitute more than one out of every five Canadians. This represents a dramatic demographic shift in the population of Canada, and will have profound consequences for all aspects of individual, community and national life. It also reflects the importance of placing research into aging at the forefront of health research in Canada today. The Institute of Aging (IA) is a national leader in addressing health research priorities for seniors. IA initiatives not only link and support researchers located in universities and hospitals across the country, but also bring together different levels of government, practitioners, voluntary health organizations and seniors themselves. Together our community is working to increase our knowledge about aging, in order to help address the challenges facing Canada's growing seniors' population and to promote the elements of healthy and successful aging. The CIHR IA is part of the Government of Canada's commitment to providing our aging population with the support needed to live healthy, independent lives and to maintain quality of life in all states of health. (Canadian Institutes of Health Research)

Programs and Services for Seniors (Government of Canada)

National Institute on Aging - Health Information (NIH)

Latest Health News (MedlinePlus) (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Preparing for Your Next (Dr.) Appointment (MedlinePlus / NIH - 2019)

Future Care for Canadian Seniors: A Primer on Nursing Supply and Demand (The Conference Board of Canada - 2017)



1 in 18 patients experiences harm in Canadian hospitals - "New measure links data to patient safety improvement efforts " (The Canadian Patient Safety Institute)


Emergency department wait times in Canada continuing to rise "The amount of time most Canadians spend waiting in emergency departments to be admitted to hospital is on the rise, new data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) shows" ( Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI, 2017)

Dysfunctional Leadership & Dysfunctional Organizations - The Politics of failure: watch out for the warning signs of bad leadership - by Med Yones (International Institute of Management)

Dirty hospitals: Hidden camera investigation (CBC Marketplace video)

Nine dead in London, Ont., area in streptococcus outbreak: health unit -
(CTV News - November 27, 2017)

Hospital overcrowding crisis caused by more than just flu, says Ontario Health Coalition (CBC) Jan 25, 2018)

Hull Hospital staff stage sit-in to protest workload - "There's a big shortage of staff and we have no time to take care of people like we want to" (CBC News, Feb 19, 2018)

The Price of Public Health Care Insurance (in Canada) - "Summary:
Canadians often misunderstand the true cost of our public health care system. This occurs partly because Canadians do not incur direct expenses for their use of health care, and partly because Canadians cannot readily determine the value of their contribution to public health care insurance. In 2018, the estimated average payment for public health care insurance ranges from $4,640 to $12,935 for six common Canadian family types, depending on the type of family. Between 1997 and 2018, the cost of public health care insurance for the average Canadian family increased 3.5 times as fast as the cost of food, 2.4 times as fast as the cost of clothing, 2.2 times as fast as the cost of shelter, and 1.8 times faster than average income. The 10% of Canadian families with the lowest incomes will pay an average of about $496 for public health care insurance in 2018. The 10% of Canadian families who earn an average income of $66,196 will pay an average of $6,311 for public health care insurance, and the families among the top 10% of income earners in Canada will pay $38,903." - (The Fraser Institute, 2018)

Ottawa clinic warns 4,600 patients of hepatitis, HIV risk over unclean equipment (CTV News, July 17, 2018)

ERs at 7 N.S. hospitals closed this week due to doctor shortage (CTV News, July 30, 2018)

Study details extent of violence faced by hospital workers (Sheryl Ubelacker, The Canadian Press, November 25, 2017)

'I have tried to end my life': Hernia mesh patients overwhelmed by pain - (CTV News, July 28, 2018)

Inadequate surgical mesh regulation put women at risk: experts - A new report concludes that transvaginal mesh products used to help treat incontinence and organ prolapse were approved on the basis of weak evidence and "may have exposed women to avoidable harms." - (CTV News, July December 7, 2017)

Transvaginal mesh failure: lessons for regulation of implantable devices - (British Medical Journal, 07 December 2017)

U.S. FDA warns of problems with EpiPen manufacturing plant (CBC News)

One-in-three heater-cooler devices may contain deadly bacteria: study (CTV News)

Heater-Cooler Devices - Risk of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections (Health Canada)

Health Canada updates Canadians on estimates of health risks for recalled valsartan drugs containing NDMA

Drug shortages homepage - (Drug Shortages Canada)

MedEffect Canada - Adverse Reaction and Medical Device Problem Reporting (Health Canada)

2016 Health Care in Canada survey provides insights into what Canadians think of their health care system - Med e-News McGill Faculty of Medicine Electronic Newsletter. Sunday, October 30th, 2016

Comparing Performance of Universal Health Care Countries, 2016 (The Fraser Institute)

Canada ranks well in global health care access study, but room for improvement - (CTV News)

20 Tips to Help Prevent Medical Errors: Patient Fact Sheet (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality)

Waiting Your Turn: Wait Times for Health Care in Canada, 2016 Report (The Fraser Institute)

GLOBAL WARMING of 1.5 °C - an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty - (IPPC / WHO)

Climate Change and Public Health Factsheets (Health Canada)

Cities are driving evolution — and may spawn new species, scientists say (Emily Chung, CBC News - Nov 02, 2017)

Trees, insects and diseases of Canada's forests - Search on Trees, insects and diseases of Canada's forests website (Natural Resources Canada)

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - "Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of research into whether a machine, such as a computer or robot, can execute tasks typically requiring human-like intelligence. AI researchers test the machine's proficiency in key areas: learning, reasoning, problem-solving, perception, and language. Today's machines can perform an array of impressive feats, from defeating the world chess champion to composing music. Saudi Arabia even granted citizenship for the first time to a machine—Sophia the robot—although the announcement met with a mixed reception. Learn more about the latest developments in artificial intelligence and decide for yourself whether a machine can think and feel like us." (Psychology Today)

Author Yuval Noah Harari warns AI will make us 'intolerant' of fellow humans (CBC News, Sep 23, 2018)


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